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camera_help [2019/02/13 12:24]
walter_schulz [Post Deflicker]
camera_help [2019/03/09 14:40] (current)
walter_schulz [Silent Pictures]
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 Please use the edit button for the respective section above that button and use the preview feature. This helps to keep the revision list tidy. Please use the edit button for the respective section above that button and use the preview feature. This helps to keep the revision list tidy.
  
 +> Update (18.02.2019) Walter Schulz
 +> Listings (= menu items) should be complete and up-to-date by now. If not: Report back!\\
 +> Task for all readers: Check for errors, misconceptions,​ blank fields, unhelpful items (overcomplicated or just missing help). Think of everything you can imagine an in-camera help should include!
 +> Special task: HDR section! If you have experience with HDR workflow, preferable with Open-Source tools (but not restricted to), any input would be appreciated!
 +
 +
 +>Update (25.02.2019) Walter Schulz\\
 +>Updated "​Focus"​ section.
 +>​Missing:​ Proper help for Focus Settings/​stepping.
 +>​Don'​t think I will describe the full FRSP+Expo.Override/​Sticky DOF+Focus stacking workflow here. More suited for a tutorial IMO.\\
 +>Updated Auto exposure a bit. EC parts still missing.\\
 +>HDR section untouched. Task still valid, copying from above
 +> Special task: HDR section! If you have experience with HDR workflow, preferable with Open-Source tools (but not restricted to), any input would be appreciated!\\
 +>And what is the difference between Luma and Luma Fast?
  
  
 ===== Audio ===== ===== Audio =====
-> INCOMPLETE 
  
-Manual audio controlsThis menu is available ​for +> Complete (18.02.2019). No pics for plugs, etc. here, because it's in-camera help and drawings for soldering doesn'​t help that much in this respect, IMO. 
  
-  * Cameras with DIGIC 4 processor.+> And if Audio screen isn't visible this help text won't be able to tell users why. That's one reason I opted for this screen to be visible at all times.
  
-  ​All cameras supporting ​audio recording ​and module MLV_SND.mo ​activated. Non-DIGIC-4 cams will be restricted to a single ​menu item: MLV Sound.+Manual audio controls.\\ If you do not see this screen check these conditions:​ 
 +  ​50D: Nope, no way to make it happen! 50D doesn'​t support ​audio recording
 +  * Your cam may have restricted audio menu after loading ​module MLV_SND.mo:\\ 1100D, 650D, 6D, 700D, EOS M, 100D, 70D, EOS M2, 1200D\\ The only menu option you will see with MLV_SND active:\\ - MLV Sound
  
-Please check [[https://​builds.magiclantern.fm/​features.html#​Audio|feature matrix]]+The options available differ a lot depending on your camera type.\\ ​Please check [[https://​builds.magiclantern.fm/​features.html#​Audio|feature matrix]]
  
  
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-==== DigitalGain ​====+==== Digital Gain ====
  
 In-camera digital gain. In-camera digital gain.
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 **AGC** ON or OFF **AGC** ON or OFF
  
-Applying digital gain in-camera is not recommended as any nonzero ​value reduces+Applying digital gain in-camera is not recommended as any non-zero ​value reduces
 audio quality and you can achieve the same effect with more control in audio quality and you can achieve the same effect with more control in
 post, but it can serve as an evaluative tool on set. You can apply post, but it can serve as an evaluative tool on set. You can apply
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 //Submenu options:// //Submenu options://
  
-**internal ​mic** your camera'​s internal mic+**Internal ​mic** your camera'​s internal mic(s)
  
 **L:int R:ext** **L:int R:ext**
  
-**external ​stereo**+**External ​stereo**
  
 **L:int R:​balanced** (internal mic on Left, external mic on Right from both external pins as balanced audio) **L:int R:​balanced** (internal mic on Left, external mic on Right from both external pins as balanced audio)
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 600D/T3i. 600D/T3i.
  
 +Tip: Before cuting/​soldering or ordering a monitoring cable check [[https://​builds.magiclantern.fm/​features.html#​Audio|feature matrix]] if this feature is available for your cam at all.
  
 ==== Headphone volume ==== ==== Headphone volume ====
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 ==== Beep, test tones ==== ==== Beep, test tones ====
  
-Customise ​camera sounds.+Customize ​camera sounds.
  
 //Submenu options:// //Submenu options://
  
-**Enable Beeps**+**Enable Beeps** ​ML uses beep tones for several events. Turn them off if you have to go silent.
  
 **Tone Waveform** Sine tones of lower frequency might be not audible on the internal speaker. Use square. Always check with Test beep sound. **Tone Waveform** Sine tones of lower frequency might be not audible on the internal speaker. Use square. Always check with Test beep sound.
  
-**Tone Frequency** ​+**Tone Frequency** ​Default is 1 kHz. Range from 55 Hz (A1) to 12 kHz. Human ears are considered to be most sensitive between 2 and 5 kHz.
  
 **Play test tone** **Play test tone**
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 Adjusting the exposure parameters. Most of these settings only work in Manual Adjusting the exposure parameters. Most of these settings only work in Manual
-(photo and video), and some of them work in P, Av and Tv too. For availability see [[https://​builds.magiclantern.fm/​features.html#​Expo|feature matrix]] +(photo and video) ​but some work in P, Av and Tv too. For availability see [[https://​builds.magiclantern.fm/​features.html#​Expo|feature matrix]] 
-Some items will only be shown after loading ​module in Module screen:+Some items will only be shown after loading ​the appropriate ​module in the Module screen:
   * Auto ETTR: ettr.mo   * Auto ETTR: ettr.mo
   * Dual-ISO: dual_iso.mo   * Dual-ISO: dual_iso.mo
   * Auto exposure: autoexpo.mo   * Auto exposure: autoexpo.mo
  
-The following settings are linked to Canon settings. If you change them here changes will appear in Canon menutoo. Vice versa.+The following settings are linked to Canon settings. If you change them here, the changes will appear in the Canon menu too and vice versa.
   * White Balance   * White Balance
   * ISO   * ISO
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 //Submenu options:// //Submenu options://
  
-**White Balance:** Rated in Kelvin, ​manually adjust ​from 1500 to 15000K.+**White Balance:** Rated in Kelvin, ​allows manual adjustments ​from 1500K to 15000K.
  
-No "​AWB"​ option ​found here. If you want to use AWB you have to re-enable it in Canon menu.+There is no "​AWB"​ option here. If you want to use AWB you have to re-enable it in the Canon menu.
  
 **WBShift G/M:** Green-Magenta white balance shift. Useful for fluorescent lighting. **WBShift G/M:** Green-Magenta white balance shift. Useful for fluorescent lighting.
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 **Auto adjust Kelvin + G/M:** **Auto adjust Kelvin + G/M:**
-In LiveView, ML will compute the white balance for the current scene+In LiveView, ML will compute the white balance for the current scene using the center (200×200 pixels rectangle) as reference gray.
-using the center (200×200 pixels rectangle) as reference gray.+
  
 Preferred method is manual White Balance, but when shooting raw video Preferred method is manual White Balance, but when shooting raw video
 this is more of evaluative tool as you have control of your WB later. this is more of evaluative tool as you have control of your WB later.
 Best practice is to have a reference colour at the beginning of each Best practice is to have a reference colour at the beginning of each
-shot, with neutral grey being preferred to white as whites can blow out +shot, with neutral grey being preferred to white because ​whites can 
-and give you a false reading.+blow out and give a false reading.
  
  
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 //Submenu options:// //Submenu options://
  
-**Equivalent ISO:** Overall ISO rating+**Equivalent ISO:** Overall ISO rating.
  
-**Canon analog ISO:** 100 to 3200 ISO at which the sensor is driven+**Canon analog ISO:** 100 to 3200 ISO at which the sensor is driven.
  
 **Canon digital ISO:** Digital ISO is the process of pulling or pushing your analog ISO to affect detail. **Canon digital ISO:** Digital ISO is the process of pulling or pushing your analog ISO to affect detail.
-Requires "Exp. Override ON" (see below in Expo screen)+Requires "Exp. Override ON" (see below in Expo screen).
  
-Strongly ​recommended ​not to touch this setting! ​0 EV!+For best image quality, it is strongly ​recommended to leave this set to 0 EV.
  
  
 **ML digital ISO (DIGIC):** **ML digital ISO (DIGIC):**
 -2 to +7 EV  -2 to +7 EV 
-Preferred to the Canon implementation,​ in movie mode +Preferred to the Canon implementation,​ in movie mode. 
-negative ​values will reduce noise, but may cause color issues in +Negative ​values will reduce noise, but may cause color issues in highlights. ​
-highlights. ​+
 This feature enables ISO 25 or 50, ISO 51200 and many other intermediate or astronomical ISOs. This feature enables ISO 25 or 50, ISO 51200 and many other intermediate or astronomical ISOs.
- 
  
 ==== Shutter ==== ==== Shutter ====
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 [[#​movie|Movie]] [[#​movie|Movie]]
 menu, meaning you have to go into the ML menus to change it. menu, meaning you have to go into the ML menus to change it.
 +
 +
  
  
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 Requiring a chipped lens, when Expo.Override is enabled, you can adjust in 1/8 stop increments. Requiring a chipped lens, when Expo.Override is enabled, you can adjust in 1/8 stop increments.
 +
 +It's one of two option for EF lenses to work stopped down with Silent Pics and the only option not blocking buttons. With "Expo. Override ON" by changing aperture here (it will **not** work from within Canon menu) lens blades will instantly adjust to the chosen aperture number. \\
 +Disclaimer: Issue #2929, not working with STM and other contemporary lens designs.
  
  
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 automagically). May be useful with flat picture styles. Raw video makes automagically). May be useful with flat picture styles. Raw video makes
 no use of this feature. no use of this feature.
-This setting will not be shown in Canon menu! At the beginning of recording a notification about the REC-PicStyle selected will be seen.+This setting will not be shown in the Canon menu! At the beginning of recording a notification about the REC-PicStyle selected will be seen.
  
  
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 Automatically expose to the right. Automatically expose to the right.
-Only visible after loadin ​ettr.mo in Modules.tab.+Only visible after loading ​ettr.mo in Modules.tab.
 ML needs LiveView to compute camera settings according to environment! ML needs LiveView to compute camera settings according to environment!
 +
 +[[https://​wiki.magiclantern.fm/​ettr|ETTR wiki]]
 +> this wiki entry is massive! Copying it here makes little sense, IMO. Extracting basics?
  
 > Text bit copied from ettr.mo Readme > Text bit copied from ettr.mo Readme
-ETTR is a techinque ​that optimizes your exposure for raw shooting, with the goal of minimizing noise without ​accidently ​blowing the highlights.+ETTR is a technique ​that optimizes your exposure for raw shooting, with the goal of minimizing noise without ​accidentally ​blowing the highlights.
  
 Auto ETTR will adjust the exposure for you until the histogram will touch the right side, but - whenever possible - without clipping. This will minimize image noise for your given set of restrictions (e.g. slowest shutter, max ISO, or what highlights can be clipped). Auto ETTR will adjust the exposure for you until the histogram will touch the right side, but - whenever possible - without clipping. This will minimize image noise for your given set of restrictions (e.g. slowest shutter, max ISO, or what highlights can be clipped).
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 0 to 50%. Percentage of bright pixels allowed above target level. 0 to 50%. Percentage of bright pixels allowed above target level.
 Use this to allow spec(ta)cular highlights to be clipped. Use this to allow spec(ta)cular highlights to be clipped.
-Example: In standard situations with sun in frame it makes no sense to avoid the sun to be blown out. The rest of the pic will be vastly underexposed. ​Same for sun reflected ​by polished ​metall ​and similiar ​situations.+Example: In standard situations with the sun in frame it makes no sense to prevent ​the sun from being blown out because the rest of the pic will be vastly underexposed. ​The same for the sun reflected ​off polished ​metal and similar ​situations ​with extreme highlights.
  
 **Allow clipping** OFF, Green channel & Any channel. Choose which channels to be clipped. **Allow clipping** OFF, Green channel & Any channel. Choose which channels to be clipped.
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 **Shadow SNR limit** 0 to 6EV. Stop underexposing when at least 5% of the image gets noisier than selected SNR. **Shadow SNR limit** 0 to 6EV. Stop underexposing when at least 5% of the image gets noisier than selected SNR.
  
-**Link to Canon shutter** Hack to adjust slowest shutter from main dial.+**Link to Canon shutter** Hack to adjust ​the slowest shutter from main dial.
  
 **Link to Dual ISO** **Link to Dual ISO**
-Let ETTR change Dual ISO settings so you get the SNR values in mids +Let ETTR change Dual ISO settings so you get the SNR values in mids and shadows. ​This will disable dual ISO if it is not needed
-shadows. ​ ​It ​will disable dual ISO if not needed.+ 
 +**Show metered areas** Show where the white point and SNR levels are metered (what exactly are considered highlights, midtones and shadows).
  
-**Show metered areas** Show where the white point and SNR levels are metered (what exactly is considered highlight, midtone and shadow).+**Allow beeps**
  
 **Show debug info** For nerds. **Show debug info** For nerds.
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 //Submenu options:// //Submenu options://
  
-**Tv** You can change ​Tv to your needs and ML will adjust ISO and/or Av to keep exposure. +**Tv** You can adjust ​Tv as desired ​and ML will adjust ISO and/or Av accordingly ​to keep exposure ​constant
-  * OFF +  * OFF - Disables exposure lock. 
-  * Av, ISO  Change Av first. Tries to keep ISO constant. +  * Av, ISO Change Av first. Tries to keep ISO constant. 
-  * ISO, Av  Change ISO first. Tries to keep Av constant.+  * ISO, Av Change ISO first. Tries to keep Av constant.
  
-**Av** You can change ​Av to your needs and ML will adjust ISO and/or Tv to keep exposure. +**Av** You can adjust ​Av as desired ​and ML will adjust ISO and/or Tv accordingly ​to keep exposure ​constant
-  * OFF +  * OFF - Disables exposure lock. 
-  * Tv, ISO Change Tv first. Tries to keep ISO constant. +  * Tv, ISO Change Tv first. Tries to keep ISO constant. 
-  * ISO, Tv Change ISO first. Tries to keep Tv constant.+  * ISO, Tv Change ISO first. Tries to keep Tv constant.
  
-**ISO** You can change ​ISO to your needs and ML will adjust Tv and/or AV to keep exposure. +**ISO** You can adjust ​ISO as desired ​and ML will adjust Tv and/or AV accordingly ​to keep exposure ​constant
-  * OFF +  * OFF - Disables exposure lock. 
-  * Tv,Av  Change Tv first. Tries to keep Av constant. +  * Tv,Av Change Tv first. Tries to keep Av constant. 
-  * Av,Tv  Change Av first. Tries to keep Tv constant.+  * Av,Tv Change Av first. Tries to keep Tv constant.
  
 ==== Expo. Presets ==== ==== Expo. Presets ====
 > COMPLETE > COMPLETE
-Toggles ​ exposure presets (ISO, shutter, aperture)+Toggles ​ exposure presets (ISO, shutter, aperture).
  
 //Submenu options:// //Submenu options://
  
-**OFF**+**OFF** ​- disables exposure presets.
  
-**Press SET**+**Press SET** - assigns the SET button to the exposure preset function.
  
-**Press INFO**+**Press INFO** ​- assigns the INFO button to the exposure present function.
  
-How toActivate "Press SET" or "Press INFO". Press according ​button onceadjust ISO/​shutter/​aperture. ​Press button ​again and previous settings will be there. Pressing again will toggle ​to the settings you adjusted.+Usage: Press the assigned ​button once then adjust ISO/​shutter/​aperture ​as desiredSubsequent presses of the assigned ​button will toggle ​back and forth between ​the 
 +original and adjusted ​exposure settings.
   * Both exposure settings may be changed anytime and are changed on the spot.   * Both exposure settings may be changed anytime and are changed on the spot.
-  * "Expo. Presets OFF" will not change ​presets ​contents. If you enable this option again your "​old"​ settings are there. This is true for Power Off, too.+  * "Expo. Presets OFF" will not change ​preset ​contents. If you enable this option again your "​old"​ settings are there. This is true for Power Off, too.
  
  
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 > INCOMPLETE > INCOMPLETE
  
-Capture using 2 different ISOs for better detail in certain ranges.+Capture using 2 different ISOs in a single picture ​for better detail in certain ranges.
 Only visible after loading dual_iso.mo in Modules screen tab. Only visible after loading dual_iso.mo in Modules screen tab.
  
-[[https://wiki.magiclantern.fm/​ettr|ETTR Wiki]]+[[https://www.magiclantern.fm/​forum/​index.php?​topic=7139.0|Dual ISO thread]] 
 + 
 +Increases dynamic range by sampling the sensor at two different ISOs, switching ISO for every other line pair. This trick cleans up shadow noise, resulting in a dynamic range improvement of around 3 stops, at the cost of reduced vertical resolution and increased aliasing and moire. 
 + 
 +Works for both raw photos (CR2) and raw videos (DNG). You need to postprocess these files with a tool called cr2hdr. 
 +> To do: List other postprocessing tools 
 + 
 +After postprocessing,​ you will get a DNG that looks like a dark ISO 100 shot, but you can bring the exposure back up and be delighted by how little noise is present in those recovered shadows. 
 + 
 + 
 +Quick start 
 +  *Start at ISO 100 in Canon menu 
 +  *Expose to the right by changing shutter and aperture 
 +  *If the image is still dark, enable dual ISO 
 +  *Adjust recovery ISO: higher values = cleaner shadows, but more artifacts 
 +  *Try not to go past ISO 1600; you will not see any major improvements,​ but you will get more interpolation artifacts and hot pixels. 
 + 
 + 
 +Tips and tricks 
 +  *Do not use dual ISO for regular scenes that don't require a very high dynamic range. 
 +  *Raw zebras are aware of dual ISO: weak zebras are displayed where only the high ISO is overexposed,​ strong (solid) zebras are displayed where both ISOs are overexposed. 
 +  *Raw histogram will display only the low-ISO half of the image (since the high-ISO data is used for cleaning up shadow noise). 
 +  *For optimal exposure (minimal noise without clipped highlights),​ try both dual ISO and ETTR. 
 +  *Do not be afraid of less aggressive settings like 100/400. They are almost as good as 100/1600 regarding shadow noise, but with much less aliasing artifacts. 
 +  *Be careful with long exposures, you may get lots of hot pixels. 
 + 
  
 //Submenu options:// //Submenu options://
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 **Midtone overlapping** **Midtone overlapping**
  
-**Alternate frames only**+**Alternate frames only** ​- only enable dual ISO every second frame.
  
-**Custom file prefix**+**Custom file prefix** ​- changes the filename prefix to help identify dual ISO images when post-processing.
  
 See dual_iso.mo in [[#​modules|Modules]]. See dual_iso.mo in [[#​modules|Modules]].
  
  
-==== Expo.Override ====+==== Expo. Override ====
  
 This mode bypasses Canon exposure limitations for ISO, Tv & Av. This mode bypasses Canon exposure limitations for ISO, Tv & Av.
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   * 1/8000s in movie mode, useful for slow motion.   * 1/8000s in movie mode, useful for slow motion.
   * ISO 12800 is allowed in movie mode on 60D and 600D.   * ISO 12800 is allowed in movie mode on 60D and 600D.
-  * Full-time DOF preview in photo mode, without blocking certain keys.+  * Full-time DOF preview in photo mode, without blocking certain keys. > Looks like another bug report knocking at the door. D5 issues with lens liveview update again, I suppose.
  
 In photo mode, anything slower than 1/25 seconds will be underexposed in In photo mode, anything slower than 1/25 seconds will be underexposed in
 LiveView. Low framerates in FPS override have fixed shutterspeeds. To LiveView. Low framerates in FPS override have fixed shutterspeeds. To
-compensate exposure adjust aperture and ISO. In daytimethis is tough +compensateexposure adjust aperture and ISO. In the daytime this is tough 
-as even at ISO 100 it would still be bright even if lens is closed down, +as even at ISO 100 with the lens closed down the image can be overexposed. 
-I recommend ​a VARI-ND.+For these situations, consider using a VARI-ND ​filter.
  
  
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 ==== Auto exposure ==== ==== Auto exposure ====
 +> To do: EC stuff
 +
 +Automatic control of your exposure during a take.\\ ​
 +
 +"P mode on steroids"​ by pravdomil.\\
 +You always wanted taking pics slightly stopped down because wide open your lens is a tad too soft? Here you go!\\
 +Avoiding blurred photos in sports? Set maximum exposure time!
 +
 +Only visible after loading autoexpo.mo in Modules tab.\\
 +https://​www.magiclantern.fm/​forum/​index.php?​topic=7208.msg60545#​msg60545
  
-Automatic control of your exposure during a take. Only visible after loading autoexpo.mo in Modules tab. 
  
 //Submenu options:// //Submenu options://
  
-See auto_expo.mo in [[#modules|Modules]].+Auto Exposure uses APEX values! 
 + 
 +**Show graph** ON 
 + 
 +{{:autoexpo.png?​360|}} 
 +   Red: Exposure duration 
 +   ​Green:​ Aperture 
 +   Blue: ISO 
 +   ​Orange:​ Exposure Compensation 
 +   ​x-axis:​ Light (Brightness Value = BV). Left: Bright light. Right: Darkness 
 + 
 + 
 + 
 + 
 + 
 + 
 + 
 + 
 + 
 + 
 +**Use in LV** 
 + 
 +**Lens Aperture** 
 + 
 +**TV minimum** sets the **maximum** shutter value. Yes, it's a menu bug. But it's what you want avoiding motion blur in sports and other action shootings. 
 + 
 +**Same TV curve** 
 + 
 +**AV range** sets aperture range, if it not match with current lens, it doesn'​t matter, it will be compensated with shutter 
 + 
 +**AV curve** by main dial you set point where will start aperture decreasing (in BV value) 
 +speed dial sets how much will be aperture decreased, it sets the slope (minus EV per one BV) 
 + 
 +**ISO range** 100 - 25600 make sure that you set correct ISO range (you can set this values via Canon ISO menu), otherwise you can get incorrect exposure. It also solves the 5D2 auto ISO bug, where is ISO hardcoded to 400. 
 + 
 +**ISO curve** by main dial you set point where will start ISO increasing (in BV value) 
 +speed dial sets how much will be ISO increased, it sets the slope (plus EV per one BV) 
 + 
 +**EC** 
 + 
 +**EC range** 
 + 
 +**EC curve** 
 + 
 +**Browse** Works with "Show graph ON" and is non-persistent. You will get a movable vertical line inside your graph. Top line shows chosen BV value and bottom line lists shutter time, aperture, ISO and EC for given BV. 
 + 
 +{{:​autoexpo2.png?​400|}} 
 + 
 +Instructions\\ 
 +Graph\\ 
 +Here are a few BV values you can get:\\ 
 +16   light sand or snow\\ 
 +16 - 13   ​daylight\\ 
 +13 - 8   ​cloudy,​ shade\\ 
 +8 - 1   ​Indoor\\ 
 +< 1   low light\\ 
 +-12   ​complete darkness\\ 
 +[[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Exposure_value#Tabulated_exposure_values|full list]]\\ 
 +graph shows what combinations will be used depending on light conditions (on BV) 
 +last BV value of current scene is marked with the cyan line 
 +shutter value is computed dynamically as BV - AV + SV - EC 
 + 
  
  
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   * RGB: check overexposure for each RGB channel. Clipped channels are displayed in the opposite color (i.e. clipped red shown as cyan, underexposed as  white and so on).   * RGB: check overexposure for each RGB channel. Clipped channels are displayed in the opposite color (i.e. clipped red shown as cyan, underexposed as  white and so on).
   * Luma Fast:    * Luma Fast: 
-> No info found for "Luma Fast".+> No info found for "Luma Fast".\\ 
 + 
 +Color Space settings apply to JPG/H.264 only. RAW is not affected.\\
  
-  Color Space settings apply to JPG/H.264 only. RAW is not affected. 
 **Underexposure** - JPG only.  Set the RGB point where underexposure zebras are displayed. **Underexposure** - JPG only.  Set the RGB point where underexposure zebras are displayed.
  
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 **Start delay** 2, 4 & 10 second delay, useful for stabilizing. **Start delay** 2, 4 & 10 second delay, useful for stabilizing.
  
-**Files > 4GB (exFAT)**+**Files > 4GB (exFAT)** ​OFF, ON. By default ML will splitt long recordings into chunks up to 4 GByte each. File naming starts with *.MLV, followed by *.M00, M01 and - in theory - up to *.M99. Your record consists of *all* parts put together in postprocessing. So don't forget to transfer them to your working directory. 
 +With setting ON only a unique file *.MLV will be created and growing in size while recording. If your file system is not exFAT ML will get stuck reaching 4 GB limit. ML itself does not check if file system is exFAT! 
 +Caveat: Files > 4 GB are not supported on some file systems so make sure your storage device is compatible!
  
 **Digital dolly** Pan your frame in camera digitally. **Digital dolly** Pan your frame in camera digitally.
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 **Buffer fill method** Select your method for filling buffers. **Buffer fill method** Select your method for filling buffers.
  
-**CF-only Buffers**+**CF-only Buffers** ​
  
 **Card Spanning** **Card Spanning**
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 ==== Advanced Bracket ==== ==== Advanced Bracket ====
 > INCOMPLETE > INCOMPLETE
-Exposure bracketing for HDR images and timelapses.+Exposure bracketing for HDR images and timelapses.  
 +Aperture bracketing for landscapes, etc.
  
 //Submenu options:// //Submenu options://
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 may also write a bash script for stacking the exposures with enfuse may also write a bash script for stacking the exposures with enfuse
 (version 4.x), with optional alignment (align_image_stack). More info: (version 4.x), with optional alignment (align_image_stack). More info:
-Exposure Fusion: What is it? How does it Compare to HDR? How Do I Do + ​[[https://​digital-photography-school.com/​exposure-fusion-what-is-it-how-does-it-compare-to-hdr-how-do-i-do-it | Exposure Fusion: What is it? How does it Compare to HDR? How Do I Do 
-It?.+It?]]
  
 Exposure time > 30 seconds: Not a problem at all. ML will extend exposure time on its own = entering ML's bulb mode. Screen will use setting stored in Bulb Timer -> Display during exposure (see below in section Bulb Timer). Exposure time > 30 seconds: Not a problem at all. ML will extend exposure time on its own = entering ML's bulb mode. Screen will use setting stored in Bulb Timer -> Display during exposure (see below in section Bulb Timer).
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 Caveats: Caveats:
 If selected interval is lower than exposure time next pic will be taken immediately after last pic. If selected interval is lower than exposure time next pic will be taken immediately after last pic.
-Option "Long exp. noise reduction will result in exposure time doubled if condition is met.+Option "Long exp. noise reduction" ​will result in exposure time doubled if condition is met.
 If Intervalometer is used to trigger "Full Resolution Silent Pic" camera will take a few seconds for processing FRSP.  If Intervalometer is used to trigger "Full Resolution Silent Pic" camera will take a few seconds for processing FRSP. 
 Don't expect "like crazy" (burst mode) to run without hickups. Cam has to wait for free buffer to continue shooting. Same may be happen with low duration settings in combination with high date rates (RAW) and/or cards with low write rate. Don't expect "like crazy" (burst mode) to run without hickups. Cam has to wait for free buffer to continue shooting. Same may be happen with low duration settings in combination with high date rates (RAW) and/or cards with low write rate.
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 **Stop after** Stop after X pictures. **Stop after** Stop after X pictures.
- 
-> Advanced Intervalometer options missing. 
  
 You can stop the intervalometer by rotating the mode dial, by pressing MENU You can stop the intervalometer by rotating the mode dial, by pressing MENU
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 Powersave menu. While the intervalometer is running, the card led will Powersave menu. While the intervalometer is running, the card led will
 blink once per second to let you know it's alive and kicking. blink once per second to let you know it's alive and kicking.
 +
 +**Ramping options**
 +Only visible after loading module adv_int.mo
 +
 +Advanced ramping and exposure control for the intervalometer ​
 +Forum:
 +http://​www.magiclantern.fm/​forum/​index.php?​topic=8431.0 ​
 +
 +Create keyframes from current camera settings and specify the frame at which the keyframe is applied. You will select which parameters you would like to set in the keyframe and which you would like to ignore. The module ramps (linearly) the vaules of selected parameters from one keyframe to the next while the intervalometer is running.
 +
 +Usage
 +
 +You should create an initial keyframe at 1, that has the settings you are going to start with, that way the module knows what to ramp from. If you don't do this the module won't ramp to your first keyframe, it will simply set the values when it gets there (it doesn'​t know how to calculate the ramp, b/c it doesn'​t know what the values started as).
 +
 +Exposure ramping
 +
 +To ramp basic expo controls (Av, Tv, ISO) set them like normal in the canon GUI as if you were taking a picture, then go into the ML menu under '​Shoot'​ -> '​Intervalometer'​ -> '​Ramping Options'​ -> 'New Keyframe'​ and create a new keyframe. Turn on or off to specify which parameters are to be included in the keyframe. The current values are displayed on the right for you, but you cannot change them from here.
 +
 +Focus ramping
 +
 +For Focus you do specify the offset to focus to from the 'New Keyframe'​ menu. The module will calculate the number of focus steps it need to take each frame to arrive at your offset that you specify. It steps from wherever the lens is focused at the start. Negative values mean focus closer, positve is towards infinity. You need to be in LiveView for the focusing to work and make sure there is enough time after the exposure is taken, before the next one starts for the focusing to take place (I recommend at least 2s, maybe more depending on camera and lens)
 +
 +Misc notes
 +
 +You can ramp the intervalometer period as well, this you also specify from within the new keyframe menu
 +Once you have created keyframes you can view them with the 'List Keyframes'​ menu. You can also save your keyframe sequence to file, and then reload them later. If not saved, any keyframes you created will be lost when the camera is turned off. Keyframes are saved and loaded from a file called "​SEQ.TXT"​ in the ML/SETTINGS directory.
 +When you have created keyframes and are ready to begin, make sure the advanced intervalometer is turned on, then turn the intervalometer on as usual from the ML Shoot menu.
 +
 +AutoETTR compatibility
 +
 +This module is compatible with AutoETTR so long as you don't try to ramp the parameters that AutoETTR is trying to change. You can ramp Av and let AutoETTR take care of Tv and ISO, or you can ramp Av and Tv and let AuttoETTR only set ISO, or put AutoETTR to link to Canon shutter (then your Tv will basically be setting the slowest Tv parameter of AutoETTR)
 +
 +
 +//Submenu options://
 +
 +  * Enabled OFF, ON
 +  * Use Global Time OFF, ON
 +  * Loop After OFF, 1 - 5000
 +  * External Source OFF, ON
 +  * List Keyframes ​
 +  * Save Keyframes
 +  * Clear Keyfames
 +  * New Keyframe...
  
  
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 Menu item only visible after loading module "Post Deflicker (deflick.mo) Menu item only visible after loading module "Post Deflicker (deflick.mo)
  
-De-flickering stills, time-lapses and movies to achieve matching brightness. May be used to get [[https://​www.magiclatern.fm/​forum/​index.php?​topic=5705.0|flicker free time-lapse]]. ​+De-flickering stills, time-lapses and movies to achieve matching brightness. May be used to get [[https://​www.magiclantern.fm/​forum/​index.php?​topic=5705.0|flicker free time-lapse]]. ​
  
 > INCOMPLETE > INCOMPLETE
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 File naming for sidecar files expects setting "Color Space = sRGB" and does not support "Adobe RGB" setting on its own. File naming for sidecar files expects setting "Color Space = sRGB" and does not support "Adobe RGB" setting on its own.
 +If used for silent pics: Supports DNG files only!
  
  
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 **Delay** Range from 0 (OFF) to 1 second in 0.1 second increments. Delay between the motion detection and picture taken. **Delay** Range from 0 (OFF) to 1 second in 0.1 second increments. Delay between the motion detection and picture taken.
  
-Detection time is somewhere between 200 and 300 ms according to DataGhost'​s speed test and it'​s ​faster with silent pictures. If "Use Autofocus"​ is selected it may add another (non-determined) delay by focus procedure.+Detection time is somewhere between 200-300ms (according to DataGhost'​s speed test), or faster with silent pictures. If "Use Autofocus"​ is selected it may add another (non-deterministic) delay due to the focusing.
  
 This setting is not persistent! If camera is turned off or going into powersave Motion Detection will be OFF! This setting is not persistent! If camera is turned off or going into powersave Motion Detection will be OFF!
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 ETTR works best with Intervalometer. Set ETTR option "​Always On". Adjust aperture or use ND filter to get exposure times above 0.5 seconds. Otherwise results may be impossible to deflicker in postprocessing. Don't forget Silent pic and Intervalometer are using the same default trigger. Change Intervalometer trigger to "Leave menu" to avoid this. ETTR works best with Intervalometer. Set ETTR option "​Always On". Adjust aperture or use ND filter to get exposure times above 0.5 seconds. Otherwise results may be impossible to deflicker in postprocessing. Don't forget Silent pic and Intervalometer are using the same default trigger. Change Intervalometer trigger to "Leave menu" to avoid this.
 Source: https://​www.magiclantern.fm/​forum/​index.php?​topic=12523.msg143510#​msg143510 Source: https://​www.magiclantern.fm/​forum/​index.php?​topic=12523.msg143510#​msg143510
 +
 +**Trigger mode**
 +
 +   * Half-shutter press
 +   * Half-shutter release
 +   * Delayed ​   Start image capture 2 seconds after half-shutter release
  
 **File Format** Choose DNG or MLV. Later requires loading MLV_REC.mo. **File Format** Choose DNG or MLV. Later requires loading MLV_REC.mo.
-In short: "​DNG"​ writes a single pic to a single files. MLV writes all single pics of a session into a single MLV. Similiar to a movie file consisting of several consecutive frames. A new session (incrementing file name) begins after powersave or after shutdown/​restart.+In short: "​DNG"​ writes a single pic to a single files. MLV writes all single pics of a session into a single MLV. Similiar to a movie file consisting of several consecutive frames. A new session (incrementing file name) begins after powersave or after shutdown/​restart.  
 +If you want to use Deflicker option (deflick.mo) you have to use DNG format. MLV not supported.
  
 Storing into MLV is considerable faster than writing DNG. Example: 7D, burst mode (94 pics). ​ Storing into MLV is considerable faster than writing DNG. Example: 7D, burst mode (94 pics). ​
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 In "​Simple"​ mode a new session begins after Powersave or Shutdown/​restart. In "​Simple"​ mode a new session begins after Powersave or Shutdown/​restart.
 In "​Burst"​ modes each burst will generate a new session file with file number incrementing. In "​Burst"​ modes each burst will generate a new session file with file number incrementing.
 +
 +
  
  
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 ==== Focus End Point ==== ==== Focus End Point ====
  
-This is end point of rack focus (X focus steps from the start point, i.e. from current focus point).+This is end point of rack focus and focus stack (X focus steps from the start point, i.e. from current focus point).
  
  
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 Works in Liveview only! Works in Liveview only!
  
-First you have to set the end point. Focus the lens, then press Q on this +How to use: 
-menu item. After pressing Q, ML will display Focus End Point: 0 steps + 
-from here.. This means the end point is now assigned to current focus +{{ :​focus_end_point.png?​200|}} 
-position. At this point, you will see the LiveView image (if not: Press Q again until LiveView is active. See screenshot) and set start point using left and right keys (just like with follow focus) or+Focus the lens in Liveview<​sup>​1</​sup>​enter ML menu by pressing trashcan button, browse to this menu item and press Q.\\  
 +After pressing Q, ML will display ​"Focus End Point: 0 steps from here.." ​This means the end point is now assigned to current focus 
 +position. At this point, you will see the LiveView image (if not: Press Q again until LiveView is active. See screenshot) 
 +and set start point using left and right keys (just like with follow focus) or
 the main dial (scrollwheel). The start point will be always the current the main dial (scrollwheel). The start point will be always the current
 focus point (which you are changing); the end point will remain fixed. focus point (which you are changing); the end point will remain fixed.
-There may be a bit of lagging between ​arrow press and screen info getting updated with actual focus step numbers.+There may be a bit of lagging between ​focusing ​and screen info getting updated with actual focus step numbers.
  
 +<​sup>​1</​sup>​ You can use 5x/10x magnify to get better focus control
 +
 +If want to get rid of ML menu items in LiveView you may press trashcan button.
  
  
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 Triggers the rack focus operation that moves between the start and end focus points. Triggers the rack focus operation that moves between the start and end focus points.
 +You have to set both points in "Focus end point" menu!
  
 //Submenu options:// //Submenu options://
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 > Play button not working in 100D at all PLAY: ML will automatically record a short clip with the rack focus operation. > Play button not working in 100D at all PLAY: ML will automatically record a short clip with the rack focus operation.
  
-Step-by-step:​ +Rack Focus (and Focus Stackingare using AF motor step settings ​defined in menu item "Focus Settings"​!
- +
-Pick the end point of rack focus by focusing on it (manually or with AF). +
-Configure focus parameters (step size and delay). Different lenses may +
-require different parameters. Open the Focus menu, go to Focus End Point +
-and press Set to zero it out. Pick the start point by focusing on it +
-with the LEFT/RIGHT buttons while the Focus menu is active. Make sure +
-the number from Focus End Point is changing as you focus. Fine-tune the +
-position with scrollwheel. Go to Rack Focus and press SET or PLAY to +
-start rack focus. To return to the starting point, run rack focus again. +
-Tip: when LCDsensor Remote is set on Near or Away, you can trigger rack +
-focus from the LCD sensor, avoiding camera shake. +
- +
-Recommended focus step settings ​(menu item "Focus Settings"​): +
- +
-Step Size: 1 or 2 +
- +
-Step Delay: - without Wait flag: large delays (around 100 ms) ? will +
-ignore small position errors - with Wait flag: small delays (only lens +
-is in very good mechanical condition) +
  
 ==== Focus Stacking ==== ==== Focus Stacking ====
  
 This selection will shoot a series of photographs with varying focus points. This selection will shoot a series of photographs with varying focus points.
-It is frequently used in macro photography to enlarge depth-of-field (DOF) by merging photos where each has a different focus point.+It is frequently used in macro photography to enlarge depth-of-field (DOF) by merging photos where each has a different focus point. Also used - to a lesser extent - in landscape photography.\\ 
 +Another term for this technique is DFF (Deep Focus Fusion).
  
  
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 **Run focus stack** **Run focus stack**
  
-**Num. pics in front**+**Num. pics in front** ​"In front"​. Direction: From "​reference point" (current focus point) towards your camera.
  
-**Num. pics behind**+**Num. pics behind** ​"​behind"​. Direction: From "​reference point" (current focus point) away from your camera.
  
-**Focus steps / picture**+**Focus steps / picture** ​"​Number * Step Size = actual steps between two pics". In short: Adjust Step Size according to lens used and adjust "Focus steps/​picture"​ according to magnification factor, aperture and desired details in stacked image.
  
-**Flash Delay**+**Flash Delay** ​If flash is used this setting will determine seconds reserved for recharging. Your cam is unable to know if the flash is properly charged or not.
  
-**Copy rack focus range**+**Copy rack focus range** ​Takes focus points selected with "Rack focus" for Focus stacking. See "​Usage",​ esp. "​Method 1".
  
 Usage: Usage:
  
-Before you begin you may consider running cam in Snap Simulation (Shoot screen -> Shoot Preferences). This will prevent wearing out mirror and shutter while struggling to make sense of focus stacking settings, esp. finding front and back focus planes.+Before you begin you may consider running cam in Snap Simulation (Shoot screen -> Shoot Preferences). This will prevent wearing out mirror and shutter while struggling to make sense of focus stacking settings, esp. finding ​proper ​front and back focus planes ​and proper focus step values.
  
-Sequences running into focus delimiter (reaching cam's focus distance limit) will get terminated leaving you with a bunch of files not suitable for postprocessing.+Sequences running into focus delimiter (reaching cam's focus distance limit) will get terminated ​with an error message "​Focus:​ soft limit reached"​ and - worst case - leaving you with a bunch of files not suitable for postprocessing.
  
  
 Method 1: Method 1:
  
-Configure rack focus and use it to preview the focus range.+Configure rack focus and use it to preview the focus range.\\ 
 +Then select menu item "Copy rack focus range"​. 
 +Select the number of focus steps to skip. This will determine the number of pictures to be taken.\\ 
 +Press PLAY to start the focus sequence (PLAY mode) or take the first picture with shutter release.\\
  
-Select the number of focus steps to skip. This will determine the number of pictures to be taken.+Method 2:
  
-Press PLAY to start the focus sequence (PLAY mode) or take the first picture with shutter release.+Focus your lens. This will be the reference point for this session. You may now select "Num. pics in front" and/or "Num. pics behind"​. After taking pics lens will return to reference point
  
-Method 2: 
  
-> To do 
  
 +Script generation: After enabling one of the options found in "​Shoot"​ -> Shoot preferences -> Post scripts each session will generate a file called FST_xxxx.sh. See description for this menu item. 
  
-Recommended focus step settings: same as for rack focus.+Focus stacking can be combined with other ML featuresEnabling FRSP (Full Resolution Silent Picture) with Focus stacking will reduce wear and tear to shutter and mirror rigorously!
  
-> To do: Script files+Focus Stacking (and Rack Focus) are using AF motor step settings defined in menu item "Focus Settings"​!
  
  
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     * OFF     * OFF
     * Startup mode: Load a preset associated to selected mode (by Mode Dial)     * Startup mode: Load a preset associated to selected mode (by Mode Dial)
-    * Startup key: Load a preset by pressing MENU/​PLAY/​INFO at startup. INFO button might be tricky because it will work only if pressed shortly after turning ​on cam.  +    * Startup key: Load a preset by pressing MENU/​PLAY/​INFO at startup. INFO button might be tricky because it will work only if pressed shortly after power on. The other keys work fine if being pressed before powering up cam.  
-    * Custom presets: You are able to configure up to 13 custom presets. They will only be visible after creating subdirectories in ML/Settings (using your PC). The name displayed in this menu matches the name given to the subdirectory. Name length for such directories is limited to 8 characters. +    * Custom presets: You are able to configure up to 13 custom presets. They will only be visible after creating subdirectories in ML/Settings (using your PC). The name displayed in this menu matches the name given to the subdirectory. Name length for directories is limited to 8 characters. 
-Tipp: Use smart naming conventions such as using preceeding P or V letters to tell photo and video presets. ​+Tipp: Use smart naming conventions such as preceeding P or V letters to distinguish between ​photo and video presets. ​
 Caveat: Order of custom presets is not by alphabet/​number but date of directory creation (time stamp)! Newest cames last, oldest first. Caveat: Order of custom presets is not by alphabet/​number but date of directory creation (time stamp)! Newest cames last, oldest first.
  
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 **Play mode actions** When you press associated "​Trigger key(s)"​ (see below), ML may perform one of these functions: **Play mode actions** When you press associated "​Trigger key(s)"​ (see below), ML may perform one of these functions:
 +
 //Submenu options:// //Submenu options://
-  * Action type: 
  
-----+  * **Action type**: 
  
        * OFF        * OFF
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        * Timelapse Play: scroll through all your pictures quickly.        * Timelapse Play: scroll through all your pictures quickly.
        * Exposure Adjust: ?        * Exposure Adjust: ?
-> Obsolete? ​ * Play 422: display silent pictures from DCIM/​100CANON (low-res only). 
- 
----- 
  
-     * Trigger key(s)+     * **Trigger key(s)**
  
----- 
  
    * Set+MainDial    * Set+MainDial
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    * L/R & Set+Dial    * L/R & Set+Dial
  
----- 
  
 **Image Review** **Image Review**
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 **Turn off GlobalDraw** If the camera is idle, ML overlay graphics will be disabled to reduce CPU usage. **Turn off GlobalDraw** If the camera is idle, ML overlay graphics will be disabled to reduce CPU usage.
  
-> OBSOLETE? **Battery Level** Battery levels. Wait for 2% discharge before reading. 
  
  
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 **Focus Distance Units** Choose between metric and imperial measurements for focal distance. **Focus Distance Units** Choose between metric and imperial measurements for focal distance.
  
- 
- 
- 
-==== Auto BurstPicQuality ==== 
- 
-> OBSOLETE? 
- 
-When enabled, it will temporarily reduce picture quality in burst mode in 
-order to maintain a decent frame rate even when the buffer becomes 
-almost full. 
- 
-//Submenu options:// 
- 
-This function will reduce picture quality if the buffer has space for less than 4 pictures: 
-  * RAW+JPG ? JPG Large Fine ? JPG Medium Fine 
-  * RAW ? JPG Large Fine ? JPG Medium Fine 
-  * JPG Large Coarse ? JPG Medium CoarsePossible results (550D, Transcend Class 10, your mileage may vary): 
-  * RAW+JPG, JPG-L, all others JPG-M 
-  * RAW, RAW, all others JPG-M 
  
  
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 ===== Modules (other) ===== ===== Modules (other) =====
 Modules by developers/​members,​ not available in the nightly builds Modules by developers/​members,​ not available in the nightly builds
 +
 +> Didn't check it
  
 ==== astro.mo ==== ==== astro.mo ====
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 //Submenu options:// //Submenu options://
 +
 +===== Abbrevations =====
 +AGC\\
 +ALO Canon'​s Auto Light Optimizer.\\
 +APEX\\
 +BV\\
 +CBR\\
 +D4, D5: Used in ML forums for DiGiC 4 and 5 image processors. \\
 +dB\\
 +DFF: Deep Focus Fusion -> Focus Stacking\\
 +DNG; Digital Negative, an open raw data format invented by Adobe\\
 +EC\\
 +ETTR: Exposing to the right. Intentionally overexposing (but not blowing out) to maximize image quality\\
 +EV\\
 +EXIF: Exchangeable image file format. Method of storing metadata (exposure, aperture, ISO, ...) into image file.\\
 +fps: Frames per second\\
 +FRSP: Full resolution Silent Picture. ML's technique taking pics covering full sensor area without shutter and mirror actuation.\\
 +ISO\\
 +Luma: Video term used for brightness.\\
 +MLV: Magic Lantern Video format. ML's own raw format which comes in two flavours: 2.0 (mlv_rec.mo) and 2.1 MLV Lite (mlv_lite.mo).\\
 +VBR\\
 +XLR\\
 +YUV Color encoding combining luma/​brightness (Y) and chrominance (UV) components. (UV does not mean "​ultraviolett"​ but stands for axis U and V of the U-V color plane.)\\
 +
 +
  
 ===== Obsolete? ===== ===== Obsolete? =====
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 Press PLAY to go to saved focus point; Press PLAY to go to saved focus point;
 Press PLAY again to go back. Press PLAY again to go back.
 +
 +==== Rack Focus ====
 +> Explanation belongs in "Focus End Point"
 +
 +Step-by-step:​
 +
 +Pick the end point of rack focus by focusing on it (manually or with AF).
 +Configure focus parameters (step size and delay). Different lenses may
 +require different parameters. Open the Focus menu, go to Focus End Point
 +and press Set to zero it out. Pick the start point by focusing on it
 +with the LEFT/RIGHT buttons while the Focus menu is active. Make sure
 +the number from Focus End Point is changing as you focus. Fine-tune the
 +position with scrollwheel. Go to Rack Focus and press SET or PLAY to
 +start rack focus. To return to the starting point, run rack focus again.
 +Tip: when LCDsensor Remote is set on Near or Away, you can trigger rack
 +focus from the LCD sensor, avoiding camera shake.
 +
 +Recommended focus step settings (menu item "Focus Settings"​):​
 +
 +Step Size: 1 or 2
 +
 +Step Delay: - without Wait flag: large delays (around 100 ms) ? will
 +ignore small position errors - with Wait flag: small delays (only lens
 +is in very good mechanical condition)
 +
 +
  
 ==== Bulb/Focus Ramping ==== ==== Bulb/Focus Ramping ====
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 algorithm. algorithm.
  
-===== Focus/Focus Stacking ​=====+** Focus/Focus Stacking ​**
  
 This function can also create scripts named like named FST_1234.SH,​ which can This function can also create scripts named like named FST_1234.SH,​ which can
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 You can also combine this function with HDR bracketing and silent pictures. You can also combine this function with HDR bracketing and silent pictures.
  
-===== RAW video (MLV)=====+** RAW video (MLV)**
  
 > Still there? **Fix black level** Forces the black level to 2048 to combat green shadows. > Still there? **Fix black level** Forces the black level to 2048 to combat green shadows.
  
  
-===== Silent Pics =====+** Silent Pics **
 Outdated, redo here, then up again Outdated, redo here, then up again
 > Outdated ​ > Outdated ​
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 should be static (a picture is taken in a few seconds). Could be useful should be static (a picture is taken in a few seconds). Could be useful
 for focus stacking or for timelapse without increasing shutter count. for focus stacking or for timelapse without increasing shutter count.
 +
 +** Auto BurstPicQuality **
 +
 +> OBSOLETE?
 +
 +When enabled, it will temporarily reduce picture quality in burst mode in
 +order to maintain a decent frame rate even when the buffer becomes
 +almost full.
 +
 +//Submenu options://
 +
 +This function will reduce picture quality if the buffer has space for less than 4 pictures:
 +  * RAW+JPG ? JPG Large Fine ? JPG Medium Fine
 +  * RAW ? JPG Large Fine ? JPG Medium Fine
 +  * JPG Large Coarse ? JPG Medium CoarsePossible results (550D, Transcend Class 10, your mileage may vary):
 +  * RAW+JPG, JPG-L, all others JPG-M
 +  * RAW, RAW, all others JPG-M
 +
 +
 +
 +
  
camera_help.1550057044.txt.gz · Last modified: 2019/02/13 12:24 by walter_schulz
 
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